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What is Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)?

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is one of the most important topic in the networking courses. OSPF is used to design and build small, large and complex networks.

Table of contents

What is OSPF?

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a type of routing protocol used in IP networks. It is a link-state protocol that provides fast convergence and efficient use of network bandwidth.

OSPF works by creating a map of the network, also known as a link-state database, and distributing it to all routers in the network. Every router utilizes this info to detect the least costly path to every other network in the system. This enables OSPF to swiftly come together and adjust to changes in the system, such as connection breakdowns or network reorganizations.

One of the main benefits of OSPF is allure scalability. It is fit upholding big and complex networks, making it an ideal choice for trade networks. OSPF is further agreeable accompanying many network types, containing point-to-point, broadcast, and non-broadcast networks.

Overall, OSPF is a widely used, established and well-judged routing protocol that offers fast convergence, provides efficient use of network resources, and scalability for large networks.


Where OSPF is used?

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is widely used in enterprise networks, especially those with large or complex network structures. Some common use cases for OSPF include:

  1. Campus networks: OSPF is often used in large campus networks to provide efficient and scalable routing.
  2. Service provider networks: Service providers use OSPF to connect multiple customer networks and to route traffic between them.
  3. Data center networks: OSPF is often used in data center networks to ensure fast and efficient routing between servers and storage devices.
  4. Internet service provider (ISP) networks: ISPs use OSPF to route traffic between different points in their network and to connect to other service providers.
  5. Military networks: OSPF is used in military networks to provide secure and efficient routing for mission-critical communications.

Generally speaking, OSPF is widely used in a variety of network environments because of its scalability, effective use of network resources, and aptitude to handle complicated network topologies.


How OSPF works?

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is a type of routing protocol that works by creating a map of the network, called a link-state database, and distributing it to all routers in the network. Each router uses this information to determine the shortest path to every other network in the network.

Here’s a high-level overview of how OSPF works:

  1. Link-State Advertisements (LSAs): Each router in the network periodically sends out LSAs to update the link-state database. LSAs contain information about the state of the links connected to the router and any changes to the network.
  2. Link-State Database (LSDB): All routers in the network maintain a copy of the LSDB, which contains information about the state of all links in the network.
  3. Shortest Path First (SPF) Algorithm: Each router uses the information in the LSDB to run the SPF algorithm and determine the shortest path to every other network in the network. This information is then used to update the router’s routing table.
  4. Routing Table: The routing table contains information about the best path to every destination network in the network. When a router receives a packet, it looks up the destination address in its routing table and forwards the packet to the next hop on the best path to the destination.
  5. Fast Convergence: If there is a change in the network, such as a link failure or a network reconfiguration, OSPF quickly updates the link-state database and runs the SPF algorithm to determine a new best path. This results in fast convergence and minimizes downtime in the network.

Overall, OSPF works by creating a map of the network, distributing it to all routers, and using this information to determine the best path to every destination. This results in efficient and fast routing in the network.


How to Enable OSPF on the Router?

To enable OSPF on a router, you can use the following steps:

  1. Configure a unique router ID:

Router(config)# router ospf <process-id>

Router(config-router)# router-id <id>

  1. Create an OSPF network:

Router(config-router)# network <network-address> <wildcard-mask> area <area-id>

  1. Verify the OSPF configuration:

Router# show ip ospf

Note: The exact commands and syntax may vary depending on the router vendor and model. You may also need to configure other OSPF options, such as authentication or cost, depending on your network requirements.


How to authenticate OSPF?

To authenticate OSPF on a router, you can use one of the following methods:

  1. Simple password authentication:

Router(config)# router ospf <process-id>

Router(config-router)# password <password>

  1. MD5 authentication:

Router(config)# router ospf <process-id>

Router(config-router)# ip ospf message-digest-key <key-id> md5 <password>

Router(config-router)# area <area-id> authentication message-digest

Note: The exact commands and syntax may vary depending on the router vendor and model. It’s also recommended to use complex passwords for added security.

What is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Why BGP is Used?

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is one of the most important topic in networking courses. In this blog we will discuss all about BGP in details that will help you to understand the concepts of Border Gateway Protocol.

Table of contents

What is BGP?

A routing protocol called Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is utilised by routers in various autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet to exchange routing data. A group of interconnected networks that are managed by a single administrative domain, such as a business or organisation, is known as an autonomous system (AS).

The effective routing of traffic over the Internet is made possible through BGP, which is used to exchange routing information between routers in various ASes. BGP is a path vector protocol, which means it chooses the best route to a destination based on the qualities and path information of a route. BGP routers communicate about the routes they are aware of and utilise this data to build a routing table that displays the most direct route to each destination.

The only routing protocol utilised to establish routing between various ASes on the Internet is BGP, which is a standard Internet routing protocol. To exchange routing data between various sites or regions, it is also used in enterprise networks, service provider networks, and data centre networks.

In conclusion, BGP is a routing protocol used on the Internet to transmit routing data between routers in various autonomous systems (AS). In addition to being utilised in enterprise, service provider, and data centre networks, it is used to establish routing between various ASes on the Internet.


How many Types of BGP?

There are two main types of Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) that are used in networks:

  1. External BGP (EBGP): EBGP is used to exchange routing information between different autonomous systems (ASes) on the Internet. In EBGP, routers in different ASes establish BGP sessions with each other to exchange routing information and establish the best path to a destination.
  2. Internal BGP (IBGP): IBGP is used to exchange routing information within the same autonomous system (AS). IBGP routers are typically used to propagate routing information between different parts of the same AS, or to provide redundancy within an AS. IBGP routers do not need to be directly connected to each other, they can be connected via other BGP routers.

It’s important to remember that although if the two types of BGP are utilised in various ways, they share a common protocol and perform similarly. The way EBGP and IBGP handle the AS PATH parameter is the major distinction between the two protocols. When a route is learned in EBGP, the AS PATH attribute is updated to include the router’s AS number. To avoid loops, the AS number is not assigned to the AS PATH element in IBGP.

In summary, there are two main types of BGP: External BGP (EBGP) and Internal BGP (IBGP). EBGP is used to exchange routing information between different autonomous systems (ASes) on the Internet, while IBGP is used to exchange routing information within the same autonomous system (AS).


How does BGP works?

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a routing protocol used to exchange routing information between routers in different autonomous systems (ASes) on the Internet. BGP routers establish a session, called a BGP neighbor or peer relationship, with each other to exchange routing information.

When two BGP routers establish a neighbor relationship, they exchange their full routing tables with each other. Each router then uses the information it receives to construct a routing table that shows the best path to each destination. BGP routers use a combination of metrics, such as the shortest AS_PATH, the lowest origin code, and the lowest MED (multi-exit discriminator) to determine the best path to a destination.

BGP routers also exchange information about the reachability of a destination. This is done through the use of routing updates, which are sent to inform other routers about changes to the routing table. These updates can include information about new routes that have become available, or routes that have become unavailable.

The optimum route to a destination is chosen by BGP routers via a technique known as route selection. Route attributes like the AS PATH, the origin code, and the MED are used to determine which route to choose. The optimum path is determined by the router to be the one with the lowest metric.

In summary, BGP routers establish a session, called a BGP neighbor or peer relationship, with each other to exchange routing information. When two BGP routers establish a neighbor relationship, they exchange their full routing tables with each other. Each router then uses the information it receives to construct a routing table that shows the best path to each destination. BGP routers use a process called route selection to determine the best path to a destination, based on the attributes of a route, such as the AS_PATH, the origin code, and the MED.


Where is BGP used?

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used in several types of networks, including:

  1. Internet Service Providers (ISPs): ISPs use BGP to communicate routing data among several Internet autonomous systems (ASes). This enables effective traffic routing between various networks and geographies.
  2. Enterprise networks: In industrial networks, BGP is also used to exchange routing data across several sites or regions. This enables effective traffic routing within the same organization’s various departments.
  3. Data center networks: BGP is used in data center networks to exchange routing information between different parts of the same data center or between different data centers. This allows for efficient routing of traffic and enables features such as load balancing and failover.
  4. Service Provider networks: BGP is used by Service providers for efficient traffic routing between different networks and to provide redundancy.
  5. Inter-domain routing: BGP is the routing protocol used between different domains of the internet, it’s the only protocol that can be used to exchange routing information between different autonomous systems(AS).

In summary, BGP is widely used in different types of networks such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs), Enterprise networks, Data center networks, Service Provider networks, and mainly used in inter-domain routing on the internet.


Where you can learn BGP?

There are several ways to learn Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), including:

  1. Online courses: There are many online courses available that cover BGP, such as offered by Cisco. These courses typically include video lectures, quizzes, and hands-on lab exercises to help you learn the concepts and gain practical experience.
  2. Books: There are also several books available on BGP, such as “BGP Design and Implementation”. These books provide in-depth explanations of the BGP protocol and its configuration and can be used as a reference guide.
  3. Training centers: Some training centers also offer BGP training courses. These courses are usually taught by certified instructors and provide hands-on experience with BGP.
  4. Self-study: You can also learn BGP by studying on your own using the Cisco documentation and other resources available online. This method requires self-discipline, time management, and a willingness to experiment with BGP in a lab environment.
  5. Labs: Practical experience is crucial to master BGP, you can use software-based routers emulators like GNS3, VIRL, or Eve-NG to set up your own lab and practice different BGP scenarios, you can use the documentation and the knowledge you gained from the previous methods to understand how to configure and troubleshoot BGP on these routers.

It’s important to remember that using a variety of techniques you can learn BGP more effectively. For instance, you may read a book, do practices in lab, can take an online course to enhance your knowledge. You may join live training where you can Implement your learnings and knowledge in labs.

What is Subnetting? Why Subnetting is Used for?

Subnetting is one of the most important topic for networking aspirants preparing for Cisco and other certifications. In this post we will discuss all about subnetting and why subnetting it is used for?

Table of contents


What is subnetting?

Subnetting is a process of dividing a small to larger network into smaller subnetworks, called subnets. Subnetting helps to reduce large networks into smaller networks, that can be more manageable groups of addresses. It helps to improve the efficiency of the network by reducing the amount of broadcast traffic.

When a device including a computer or router is connected to a network, it is assigned an IP address that is a unique numerical label that identifies the device on the network. These IP addresses are divided into two parts: the network portion and the host portion.

IP addresses are 32-bit numbers in IP version 4 (IPv4) and are commonly expressed as four octets (i.e., groups of 8 bits) separated by periods (e.g., The IP address is split into the network portion and the host portion using a subnet mask. A 32-bit value, the subnet mask is also expressed often as four octets (e.g.,

The subnet mask is used to identify which part of an IP address belongs to the network and which part belongs to the host when subnetting a network. The first three octets (192.168.1), for instance, would represent the network portion of the IP address when using a subnet mask of, while the final octet (1) would represent the host portion.

Subnetting is a method of dividing a network into smaller sets of addresses, which can be used to represent separate subnets. Each subnet mask assigned to the subnets will differentiate devices within that subnet from other parts of the network, but allow for communication between them. This helps make use of IP addresses more efficiently and effectively while also increasing the security and robustness of the overall networking system.

Rephrase The most commonly used method for subnetting a network is by utilizing the IP address and the subnet mask together. This strategy identifies which addresses are part of each specific subnet.


Why subnetting is used for?

Subnetting is a method used to divide a large network into smaller networks, called subnets. There are several reasons why subnetting is used:

Network organization: Subnetting divides a big network into smaller subnets, allowing for a more effective use of IP address space. This can strengthen a network’s security and make it simpler to maintain and organise.

Improved network performance: By lowering broadcast traffic and network congestion, subnetting can also help networks run better. There is less traffic on each subnet when a large network is divided into smaller ones, which might result in speedier communication and reduced network congestion.

Security: By dividing a bigger network into smaller, more secure networks, subnetting can also be used to increase security. For instance, a business might utilise subnetting to set up a separate network for confidential information that is only available to a small number of staff members.

Multi-Vendor Integration: In many cases companies, businesses have different vendors for different sections of the network, by subnetting it allows them to manage and maintain different sections of the network separately.

Remote access: Subnetting enables an organisation to allocate particular IP ranges to distant users and control and monitor their network access since remote users are frequently employed by enterprises or required to have remote access to the network.

In general, subnetting is an effective technology that may be used to enhance a network’s organisation, functionality, security, and scalability.


Subnetting will help you to pass which Cisco certification?

Subnetting is an important topic that is covered in several Cisco certification exams, including the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) and Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certifications.

The CCNA certification focuses on the basics of subnetting and how to configure Cisco routers and switches.

The CCNP certification covers advanced subnetting and routing concepts, as well as more advanced configurations for Cisco routers and switches.

In order to pass the CCNA, CCNP or other Cisco certifications that include subnetting, it is important to have a good understanding of the subnetting process and be able to perform subnetting calculations. It’s also important to have good understanding of IP addressing schemes and IPV4/IPV6 addressing and routing. Practicing subnetting questions, doing lab exercises and taking practice tests will be very helpful to pass the exams.

Overall, a solid understanding of subnetting and the ability to perform subnetting calculations is essential for passing several Cisco certification exams, particularly those focused on routing and switching.

What is CCNA? Why it is Important to get CCNA Certification?

The Cisco Certified Network Associates (CCNA) certification program was developed to help individuals gain knowledge and skills necessary to support the design, installation, operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and campus area networks (CANs).

In this blog we will discuss wide range of topics as per given table of contents.

Table of contents

  1. What is CCNA?
  2. What to learn in CCNA?
  3. Why Cisco CCNA?
  4. Is CCNA is worth for?
  5. Who are eligible for CCNA certification course?
  6. Which exam is required to pass to be a CCNA certified professionals?
  7. How much CCNA exam cost?
  8. How to prepare for CCNA certification?
  9. Will I get job after CCNA?
  10. How much salary expected for CCNA professionals?
  11. What should I do after CCNA course?
  12. What is the duration of this course?


1. What is CCNA?

CCNA is the certification program offered by Cisco and known as entry level certification in IT networking industry. The CCNA is meant to verify your understanding of the basic networking concepts that are frequently required in networking responsibilities in IT positions. It prepares you for networking job roles in IT industry such as network engineer, network specialist, network expert.

The Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) is a professional-level certification in the field of networking. It is offered by Cisco Systems, a leading provider of networking hardware, software, and services.

To become a CCNA, individuals must pass a certification exam that covers a range of networking concepts and technologies, including:

  • Networking fundamentals
  • LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network) technologies
  • Network security
  • IP connectivity and IP services
  • Routing and switching technologies
  • Network troubleshooting and maintenance
  • Network automation and programmability

CCNA certification is designed to provide basic level of networking knowledge and skills. It is also known as first step towards the advanced certifications such as the Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) or the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE).

CCNA certification provides skills and knowledge to setup, manage, fix and troubleshoot small to medium level networks. This is known as starting level certification for network professionals and provides the opportunity to choose right domain for your next step certification. After CCNA certification you can go for security, enterprise, data center, collaboration and wireless domains.

Holding a CCNA certification can demonstrate to potential employers that you have the knowledge and skills to design, implement, and maintain networking solutions using Cisco technologies. It is often sought after by individuals looking to enter or advance in the field of networking.


2. What to learn in CCNA?

CCNA certification covers wide area of course syllabus. The CCNA certification course gives the strong foundation of networking that can take anyone career in any direction. The topics you will cover in CCNA syllabus are given below:

  • Network Fundamentals
  • Network Access
  • IP Connectivity
  • IP Services
  • Security Fundamentals
  • Automation and Programmability

The CCNA syllabus starts from network fundamentals that will tell you the different types of components used in a network with their roles and function details. And then followed by other course topics with detailed lectures and lab practical.


Network Fundamentals

This CCNA course topic will include all the fundamentals skills and knowledge required to setup an small to medium size networks. Such as components of networks and their roles, topology designs of networks, different types of physical devices and cabling types, identification of cable and interface issues, TCP to UDP comparison, IPv4 and IPv6 addressing and subnetting configuration and verification, need of IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, wireless principles, virtualization, and switching concepts.

Network Access

The network access topic will cover VLAN configuration and verification, interswitch connectivity configuration and verification, layer 2 discovery protocols configuration and verification, ether channel configuration and verification, need for spanning tree protocol and their operations, Cisco wireless architecture, WLAN components, AP and WLC management access connections.

IP Connectivity

IP connectivity topic will cover components of routing table, how a router makes a forwarding decision, IPv4 and Ipv6 static routing configuration and verification, OSPFv2 configuration and verification, and first hop redundancy protocol purpose.

IP Services

The IP services course topic will cover configuration and verification of NAT, NTP operating, the roles of DHCP and DNS in a network, SNMP functions, use of syslog features, configuration and verification of DHCP client, configuration of network devices for remote access, and function of FTP in the network.

Security Fundamentals

This course topic will cover security concepts, security program elements, device access control configuration, security password policies elements, remote access, site-to-site VPNs, access control list configuration and verification, layer 2 security features configuration, wireless security protocols and WLAN configuration.

Automation and Programmability

The topic will cover automation impacts on network management, controller based networking, and JSON encoded data overview.


3. Why Cisco CCNA?

Cisco CCNA known as foundation level certification from Cisco that makes your foundation very strong that can take your career in any direction. It is also known as first step in preparing for a career in IT technologies. The CCNA course syllabus covers wide range of fundamentals for IT careers based on the latest technologies, networking security, automation and programmability. It provide wide range of networking skills and knowledge based on current required skills and job roles.

Cisco CCNA certified people are living proof of the standards and organizations recognize your certification value. It provide deep understanding of routing, switching, network access, IP services, IP connectivity, security, automation and programmability fundamentals.

So in the sort you can say that your CCNA certification is your proof of qualification, you are part of unique list of certified people, it provide career advancement, it is basis of other certification, it tells the employer that you have required skills and knowledge they required.


4. Is CCNA is worth for?

This is the edge of cloud and virtualization, so this question may arise in your mind. To prove the worthiness of CCNA certification you can check the various parameters as given below:

Still this is known as first step certification towards IT technology career – The Cisco CCNA is the basic level foundational course provides routing and switching, subnetting, IP services, IP addressing, network security, OSI model skills and knowledge. This CCNA certification is not avoidable before entering in IT networking career. These skills and knowledge is required to be a professional network engineer, cloud engineer, network specialist or Cybersecurity specialist.

Job opportunities after CCNA – There are tons of job opportunities available in IT technology for CCNA certified professionals. The certified people may apply for technical support engineer, help desk engineer, system engineer, network administrator, IT manager, senior network engineer, network security engineer, and network security specialist.

When you search for job roles for CCNA certified people you find that organizations are interested to hire those people.

Attractive salary – CCNA certification also give the opportunity to get attractive salary. As a network engineer you can get upto 6 lacs per year.

Globally accepted certification – CCNA is the globally accepted certification. Its reputation is very much high in IT technology industry. It proves your skills in networking.

Various career path – CCNA certification not only open opportunity for networking career but it opens doors for multiple career paths such as cloud computing, cybersecurity, defense, space, virtualization, etc.


5. Who are eligible for CCNA certification course?

This is the common question related to CCNA certification. There are no formal prerequisite for CCNA certification. You are eligible for CCNA certification exam if you are fresh graduate from any stream. But if you have one or more years of experience in implementing Cisco solutions then this will better than non experienced.


6. Which exam is required to pass to be a CCNA certified professionals?

You must pass the Cisco CCNA 200-301 test to earn the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification. Network fundamentals, LAN switching technologies, security fundamentals, routing technologies, WAN technologies, and network services are just a few of the subjects that are covered in the Cisco CCNA test.

The 200-301 CCNA test has a 120-minute time limit and is proctored online. It has between 100 and 120 multiple-choice questions. You need to get at least 825 out of 1000 to pass the test.


7. How much CCNA exam cost?

The cost of the Cisco 200-301 CCNA exam varies depending on your location and the delivery method you choose. As of 2023, the exam cost is as follows:

In the United States: $300 USD

In India: $300 USD

In other countries: The exam cost may be different depending on the local currency exchange rate. You can check the current exam cost in your country by visiting the Cisco Certification Exam Pricing page and selecting your country from the dropdown menu.

There may also be additional fees for scheduling the exam, rescheduling or canceling the exam, or taking the exam at a testing center rather than online.

It’s worth noting that the cost of the CCNA exam is just one part of the overall cost of obtaining the CCNA certification. You may also need to invest in study materials, training courses, or other resources to prepare for the exam.


8. How to prepare for CCNA certification?

There are a number of steps you can take to prepare for the Cisco CCNA certification exam:

Familiarize yourself with the exam content and format: The CCNA exam covers a wide range of topics related to networking, including network fundamentals, LAN switching technologies, IP services, routing technologies, WAN technologies, network security and network services. You can find more information about the exam content and format on the Cisco CCNA certification page.

Use official Cisco training resources: Cisco offers a range of training resources to help you prepare for the CCNA exam. These resources are instructor-led courses, e-learning courses, and self-study materials. All these Cisco resources are designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the exam content and help you develop the knowledge and skills you need to pass the exam.

Practice with hands-on exercises: Hands-on experience is an important part of preparing for the CCNA 200-301 exam. You can practice your skills by setting up a lab environment and working through exercises and and lab tasks.  There are many online resources also, such as practice exams and simulations, that you can use to test your knowledge and prepare for the exam.

Use third-party study materials: In addition to official Cisco resources, there are many third-party study materials, such as books, training videos, practice exams, and study guides, that can help you prepare for the CCNA exam. These materials can provide additional practice questions and resources to help you understand the exam content.

Overall, the key to preparing for the 200-301 CCNA exam is to be consistent and disciplined in your studies. By setting aside dedicated time to study and practice, and using a variety of resources to help you learn, you can increase your chances of success on the exam.


9. Will I get job after CCNA?

Obtaining a CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification can improve your job prospects and help you find employment in the field of networking. Employers often look for candidates with industry-recognized certifications such as CCNA, as it demonstrates a level of proficiency and knowledge in networking technologies.


However, it is important to note that obtaining a CCNA certification alone does not guarantee employment. There are many factors that can influence your job prospects, including your level of experience, education, and other skills and qualifications. In addition, the job market can fluctuate and it is always important to continuously update your skills and knowledge to remain competitive.


It is also a good idea to have a solid understanding of networking concepts and technologies beyond what is covered in the CCNA certification. This can help you stand out to potential employers and increase your chances of finding a job in the field.


10. How much salary expected for CCNA professionals?

The salary for a CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) professional can vary depending on a number of factors, including your level of experience, the industry in which you work, and the location of your job. In general, CCNA professionals can expect to earn a median salary of around 3-5 lacs per year, according to the data from various job portals.

However, it is important to note that this is just a rough estimate and actual salaries may vary significantly. Some CCNA professionals may earn more or less than this amount depending on their specific job duties and responsibilities, as well as their employer and location.


11. What should I do after CCNA course?

You can undertake a number of things to advance your networking career after passing a CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course, including:

Gain practical experience: The CCNA course offers a strong foundation in networking principles and technologies, but it’s also crucial to gain practical experience to advance your knowledge and skills. To obtain practical experience, look at internships or entry-level networking roles.

Think about getting more certifications: You can further your networking profession by earning numerous other industry-recognized certifications, such the CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) or the CCIE (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert). These certificates can make you stand out to potential employers and often involve additional study and testing.

Keep up with industry trends: Since networking is a subject that is continuously changing, it is crucial to keep up with the newest innovations. To stay up to date, think about subscribing to industry periodicals, going to conferences or webinars, and enrolling in additional courses.

Network and build professional relationships: Connect with others in the industry through networking and professional partnerships to learn about new job openings and stay up to date on the latest developments. To meet and network with other professionals, think about joining professional organisations or networking groups and attending industry events.

Seek out career advancement opportunities: Once you have gained some experience and developed your skills, you may be ready to take on more responsibility or seek out leadership roles. Consider looking for opportunities to advance your career within your current organization, or consider exploring job opportunities at other companies.


12. What is the duration of this course?

Depending on the particular programme you are enrolled in and how much time you have available for study, the length of a CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) course can change. Generally speaking, a CCNA course can be finished in a few weeks to many months.

You can study at a speed that suits you because the majority of CCNA courses are meant to be taken at your own leisure. While some courses are totally self-paced and allow you to work at your own pace, others may provide online or in-person classrooms that meet at set hours.

In addition to the coursework, you will also need to pass a certification exam to become a CCNA. The exam typically consists of around 100-120 multiple-choice questions and takes about 120 minutes to complete. You may need to schedule the exam separately, and it may take several weeks or months to prepare for it depending on your level of experience and familiarity with the material.


Hope this blog will help you to know about CCNA certification.

How to Configure vSmart Controller in SD-WAN

Configuring the vSmart Controller

To configure the vSmart Controller we need to setup virtual machines (VMs) first in our overlay. Once we setup and started VMs automatically they come up with factory default configuration. After that we need to configure some basic features and functions so that all the devices can be authenticated and can join the overlay network. The IP address, vBond orchestrator of our networks, IP address of our system, and a tunnel interfaces are included in these features.

For participation of vSmart controllers in the overlay network and for the overlay network to be functional we must do following:

  1. Set up a tunnel interface on at least one VPN 0 interfaces that must connect with WAN transport network accessible through all Cisco vEdge devices. In that overlay network VPN 0 carries all control plane traffic among Cisco vEdge devices.
  2. Enable Overlay Management Protocol (OMP).

Once we create this initial configuration we need to create full configuration now by templates configuration on vManage NMS. After that we will attach them to the vSmart Controllers. Once we do this the templates parameters overwrite the initial configuration.
Then we must assign a system IP address to the vSmart Controller in initial configuration. This IP address identifies the controllers of any interface addresses. The IP address is similar to the router ID on non-Cisco SD-WAN routers.

Let us learn how we can setup initial configuration for the vSmart controller

Create Initial Configuration for the vSmart Controller

In CLI session, login to the Cisco vEdge (Viptela) device via SSH. Login as the user admin and the default password admin. You will login into CLI session.
Then enter configuration mode.

Configuration mode:
vSmart# config



Hostname Configuration

This is the optional step but recommended.

Configure the hostname:

Cisco(config)# system host-name hostname


IP address configuration

The IP address can be IPV4 and IPV6 address.

Configure the system IP address:

vSmart(config-system)# system-ip ip-address

Here Cisco vManage uses the system IP address to identify the device. Then NMS can download the full configuration to the device.


Configure the site identifier where the device is located:

vSmart(config-system)# site-id site-id


Configure the domain identifier in which the device is located:

vSmart(config-system)# domain-id domain-id


IP address configuration of vBond orchestrator or vBond DNS name

The Cisco vBond orchestrator’s IP address must be a public IP address, so that all Cisco vEdge devices in the overlay network can reach it.

Configure the IP address of the vBond orchestrator or vBond DNS name:

vSmart(config-system)# vbond (dns-name | ip-address)


To confirm software upgrade is successful, configure a time limit:

vSmart(config-system)# upgrade-confirm minutes

This time may be from 1 minute through 60 minutes. When we upgrade the software on the device after this time limit configuration we must confirm that software upgrade is successful within configured limited time. If it does not happens it reverts to the previous software image.


This is box title

vSmart(config-system)# user admin password password


Configure an interface in VPN 0 that will be used as tunnel interface

Configure an interface in VPN 0 that will be used as tunnel interface. VPN 0 is the WAN transport VPN. The interface name has eth number format. Here you must configure IP address and enable interface. This IP address can be configured as static or via DHCP.

Configure an interface in VPN:

vSmart(config)# vpn 0
vSmart(config-vpn-0)# interface interface-name
vSmart(config-interface)# (ip dhcp-client | ip address prefix /length)
vSmart(config-interface)# no shutdown
vSmart(config-interface)# tunnel-interface
vSmart(config-tunnel-interface)# allow-service netconf

Tunnel interface must be configured on one interface in VPN 0. So that overlay network will come up and then Cisco vSmart Controller will participate in the overlay network. This interface should be connected with WAN transport network accessible by all Cisco vEdge devices.


Identify the type of WAN

To identify the type of WAN transport need to configure tunnel color. You can configure your color or default color.

To identify the type of WAN transport need to configure tunnel color:

vSmart(config-tunnel-interface)# color color


Configure a default route to the WAN transport network:

vSmart(config-vpn-0)# ip route next-hop


Commit the configuration:

vSmart(config)# commit and-quit


Verify that the configuration of vSmart Controller is correct and complete:

vSmart# show running-config

Now this is done. Hope this post will help you.

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How does the CCNP course assist you in taking a successful move forward in your career?

What is CCNP Security?

Cisco understands that infrastructure is about security as much as it is about interconnection. This has led to a greater emphasis on security training that incorporates prior CCNP Security editions’ best practices. There’s a fresh emphasis on safety at scalability now. Contemporary networked systems also rely heavily on mechanization.

To earn the current CCNP Security certification, students should complete the main examination SCOR-350-701: Implementing and Operating Cisco Security Core Tech. It includes information on a variety of network security subjects, including:

  • Network security
  • Cloud security
  • Securing content in enterprise settings
  • Endpoints
  • Network resources access
  • Policy enforcement

It’s worth noting that if you complete the main examination, you’ll be entitled to take the CCIE Security certification exam. After you’ve passed the core exams, you’ll need to choose a specialization exam. We won’t go into great depth regarding each examination, but there are six options right now:

  • Using Cisco Firepower to Secure Networks (SNCF 300-710)
  • Preparing and deploying Cisco Identity Services Engine (SISE 300-715)
  • Using the Cisco Email Security Appliance to Secure Email (SESA 300-720)
  • Cisco Web Security Appliance for Web Security (SWSA 300-725)
  • Using Vpns Networks to Implement Secure Solutions (SVPN 300-730)
  • Cisco Security Solutions Automation and Programming (SAUTO 300-735)

CCNP Security is similar to other security-related certifications in that it includes DoD 8570.01-M conformance. However, because it is more network-oriented on a scientific level, the security concepts and principles you do learn are specific to Cisco and are significantly more specialised than, for instance, CompTIA’s Security+ certification.

Network workers who really need to focus on managing network devices and executing security measures across the network can benefit from the CCNP Security certification. Candidates’ expertise of equipment such as firewalls, switches, and routers is tested on this exam.

What Does CCNP Security Require?

You only need to complete the main test to take the specific focus qualifying exam.

However, because this certification digs extensively into connectivity, you should have a clear grasp of networking before attempting to achieve it. Three to five years of expertise dealing with Cisco networking equipment is recommended by Cisco.

CCNP Security is valid for 2 years and must be updated afterwards. Ascending the Cisco certification ladder is the great place to stay qualified. This will renew your existing certificates while also advancing your professional chances.

How difficult is CCNP Security?

The CCNP is typically thought to be more challenging than the CCNA according to most exam takers. This is partly due to the fact that the CCNP test covers a much broader range of topics. In addition, the CCNP has a deeper level of content than the CCNA. Another thing to remember is that the weighting of the problems varies across tests. The CCNP test has easier questions but takes 30 minutes longer to complete.

What are the Pros of CCNP Security Certification?

Obtaining the CCNP Security certification has numerous advantages. The status of achieving such a difficult certificate, as well as social acknowledgment, are both objective rewards. But the basic fact is that obtaining a Cisco certification that is widely recognised and accepted will increase your credibility and marketability.

What about CCNP Cyber security pay scales? As per Zip Recruiter, a qualified CCNP Security holder may expect to earn roughly $113,369 per year. 

Product Security Engineer, Security Operations Engineer, Lead Security Engineer, Senior Network Security Engineer, and Senior Information Security Engineer are some of the jobs you can anticipate to earn with a CCNP.

The CCNP Safety certification is required for most positions that involve both safety and Cisco device administration and repair. As a result, certain jobs will demand you to have at least a CCNP Security certification. As previously stated, this certification also provides DoD access, making it a favoured credential for many government-related positions.

You will get more opportunities within your firm if you hold a CCNP System check. You’ve improved your chances of getting a raise or a transfer. 

The CCNP Security credential displays your dedication to self-improvement and knowledge. A worker with that much desire will be held in high regard and appreciated.

What are the Cons of CCNP Security Certification?

The CCNP Security exam, like most others, requires a significant amount of studying and preparation. The exam may be a foundational exam in the Cisco certification structure, but it does not make it simple. You must have about three and five years of expertise prior to taking tests, as well as a full understanding of the standardized test topics.

The CCNP certificate is valid for three years, and you can learn more about the renewal policy here. You can renew your certification by completing one or more of the following steps:

  • Take an exam
  • Attend a Cisco Live training session
  • Author related content
  • Complete online training courses
  • Complete instructor-led training

Complete one technological foundation examination, any two professional concentration exams, and one CCIE lab test to get Cisco professional-level credentials. Earn 40 CE credits or 80 CE certs by completing any one specialized focus exam.

Is CCNP Security Worth It?

We discussed the CCNP Security learning needs, exam topics, and potential earnings. Even after all that, we can confidently respond yes to the question, “Is the CCNP Security worth it?”

The CCNP training will assist you get a CCNP Security certification, that will assist you make it to the top of the application form stack. Certified employees are valued by employers. Being certified not only confirms that you understand what you’re doing, but it also helps to attract more qualified people as more learning and innovation possibilities arise.

In today’s business world, safety is more critical than before. The CCNP Security credential demonstrates that you grasp how security standards have evolved and how to execute them.

Which Specialty Exam Should I Take in CCNP Enterprise Certification?

Since March 2020, a lot has changed in Cisco certifications. The CCNP certifications have been completely revamped. For example, the CCNP Wireless, CCNP R&S, and CCDP, for example, have all been retired. The changes make determining which CCNP test you need to take for your particular career path more difficult.

The majority of CCNP certificates are simple; the title of the certification indicates the specialism. The pathway for security engineers is the CCNP Security. If you wish to work on data centre infrastructure, the CCNP Data Center is the right choice. The CCNP Enterprise, on the other hand, is a little more difficult.

The CCNP Enterprise now includes several specialities. That implies you’ll need to find the correct specialist test if you want to do something akin to the previous R&S or wireless certs. There are a total of six CCNP speciality tests, so there’s a lot to consider.

We’ll go over the current CCNP certification path and help you figure out which CCNP Enterprise speciality test is best for you.

Which CCNP Enterprise Specialty Exam Should I Take?

For context, we recommend reading the entire article:

  • Take the 300-410 ENARSI CCNP Enterprise specialisation exam if you desire a network engineering certification similar to the old CCNP Routing & Switching.
  • Take the 300-415 ENSDWI CCNP Enterprise speciality exam if you wish to work with SD-WAN and edge routing technologies.
  • Take the 300-420 ENSLD CCNP Enterprise speciality exam if you wish to design enterprise networks.
  • Take the 300-425 ENWLSD CCNP Enterprise specialist exam if you wish to be a wireless design engineer (someone who designs wireless networks).
  • Take the 300-430 ENWLSI CCNP Enterprise speciality exam if you want to be a wireless engineer (someone who configures, manages, and troubleshoots wireless networks).
  • Take the 300-435 ENAUTO CCNP Enterprise specialist exam if you want to be a network automation engineer.

Now that that’s out of the way, let’s get down to business.

The CCNP is the starting point for specialisation: Make an informed decision.

There were specialties available at the CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) level. Cisco, on the other hand, modified the structure of their certification programme, making the CCNA more foundational now. When you earn a CCNP certification, you gain professional specialisation. When you consider the usual job path, this makes sense. You should begin with a strong foundation of networking and hardware skills, which you can obtain at the CCNA level, and then specialise in a specific area.

For example, you could begin as a helpdesk technician who does a little bit of everything and then discover that you really enjoy security along the way. You can earn a CCNP Security to help you take the next step now that you have the experience.

The key takeaway is that the CCNP is when you start to specialise. Make sure you pick a specialisation that you enjoy.

Everyone should take the ENCOR Core CCNP Exam 350-401.

Regardless of which CCNP specialist course you take, you must pass the 350-401 ENCOR core test. This test covers the skills and principles of enterprise network configuration, troubleshooting, management, and security. The core test covers concepts that are important to all specialisations, which is why everyone who wants to get the CCNP must take it.

Breaking things up this way offers two advantages:

  • The same set of essential skills and principles apply to all CCNP cert holders.
  • Exams for specialisation can concentrate on the topics that are most important to the speciality.

Exams for the CCNP Enterprise Specialty

You can get your CCNP Enterprise by combining six specialist exams with the 350-401 ENCOR. We’ll go through each one in detail in the sections below. We’ll discuss which job titles a certain exam might be appropriate for as we go.

Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services (300-410 ENARSI)

The 300-410 ENARSI (Implementing Cisco Enterprise Advanced Routing and Services) exam focuses on advanced routing technology and services. That means it includes Layer 3 routing and VPN services, among other things.

The 300-410 ENARSI is your best bet if you’re seeking for a replacement for the outdated CCNP Routing & Switching test. Active CCNPs who passed the former ROUTE (300-101), SWITCH (300-115), and TSHOOT (300-135) examinations before February 24 were awarded the Cisco Certified Specialist – Enterprise Advanced Infrastructure Implementation and Cisco Certified Specialist – Enterprise Core certificates. If you pass the 300-410 ENARSI and 350-401 ENCOR exams, you’ll receive the same two certifications.

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist exam 300-410 ENARSI is a suitable choice for:

  • Network engineers
  • Senior network administrators

Implementing Cisco SD-WAN Solutions (300-415 ENSDWI)

Edge routing and SD-WAN are becoming increasingly prevalent. The Cisco SD-WAN Solutions (300-415 ENSDWI) exam provides the abilities you’ll need to stay current. This exam covers subjects such as Zero Touch Provisioning (ZTP), Cisco’s SD-WAN overlay, and SD-WAN monitoring and management in depth.

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist exam 300-410 ENSDWI is a suitable choice for:

  • WAN Engineers
  • Solution designers focusing on SD-WAN and edge technologies

Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (300-420 ENSLD)

It takes a lot of effort to design an enterprise network. You must move a project from the requirements stage to the solutions stage while keeping cost, performance, and security in mind. Designing Cisco Enterprise Networks (300-420 ENSLD) is a Cisco-based course that covers enterprise network design. This may be the ideal CCNP Enterprise specialist test for you if your objective is to create networks from the ground up. The exam covers advanced routing, campus networks, software-defined access (SDA), and network and security services, among other subjects.

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist test 300-420 ENSLD is a suitable choice for:

  • Network architects
  • Network managers

Designing Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (300-425 ENWSLD)

There are a lot of exciting things happening in the world of wireless with WiFi 6 and WiFi 6e. Designing Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (300-425 ENWSLD) is a fantastic choice if you want your CCNP Enterprise speciality exam to focus on designing WiFi solutions within enterprise networks. The test includes topics such as wired and wireless infrastructure, mobility, site assessments, and wireless local area networks (WLANs) (wireless local area networks).

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist test 300-425 ENWSLD is a suitable choice for:

  • Wireless sales engineers
  • Wireless design engineers

Implementing Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (300-430 ENWLSI)

Let’s say you like wifi but want to be more involved in the setup and troubleshooting. You might want to take the Cisco Enterprise Wireless Networks (300-430 ENWLSI) test.

The 300-430 ENWSLI, like the 300-425 ENWSLD, has a strong wireless concentration, however it focuses on implementation rather than network architecture. That implies the ENWSLI covers enterprise wireless solutions subjects like device hardening, monitoring, and setup.

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist test 300-430 ENWSLI is a suitable choice for:

  • Wireless engineers
  • Wireless integrators

Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO 300-435)

The CCNP Enterprise and Cisco Certified DevNet Professional certifications are earned by passing the core exam and the Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO 300-435) exam. This certification is a fantastic choice if you want to focus your career on the convergence of DevOps and Cisco equipment. Python programming, network programmability, NETCONF/RESTCONF/YANG, and automation tools are all covered in ENAUTO 300-435.

Given its specialisation, the CCNP Enterprise specialist test 300-435 ENAUTO is a suitable choice for:

  • Network automation engineers
  • DevOps engineers

Why Didn’t We Discuss CCNP Salary?

Okay, you’ve nabbed us. We haven’t mentioned the typical CCNP salary or which certifications will give you the best bang for your dollars. There are three reasons why we purposefully avoided doing so:

  • The majority of pay data will be for “CCNP” or “CCNP Enterprise,” thus distinguishing between specialisations based on that alone will be difficult.
  • There hasn’t been enough time to collect sufficient data to see what distinctions exist between the new CCNPs because of the new CCNPs.
  • CCNP certified professionals, regardless of expertise, tend to make a respectable livelihood. If you choose something that interests you and master it, you’re more likely to make more in the long run.

Final Thoughts:

We hope that this post assisted you in determining which CCNP Enterprise specialisation exam was the best fit for you. It’s critical to remember that there is no such thing as an incorrect answer. The idea is to align your certification journey with your professional objectives. Decide where you want to go and take the CCNP Enterprise speciality exam that corresponds to your goals.

What is the best way to study for the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) exam?

IT professionals are in high demand. The CCNA certification is one of the most popular and sought-after qualifications for IT professionals, but getting your foot in the door isn’t always straightforward.

The good news is that those who have earned their CCNA certification now have more chances than ever before!

The CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) certification has recently grown in popularity as one of the top networking qualifications available today for both entry-level and experienced network engineers.

A Cisco CCNA certification allows you to learn about many areas of internetworking infrastructure while also demonstrating abilities that make candidates extremely competitive for job openings at prestigious firms.

You must be able to configure, operate, and troubleshoot network switches in order to become a CCNA. It is envisaged that when one gains experience with these technologies, they will be able to configure routers as well.

Also read: How to prepare for CCNA 200-301 certification?

Best way to study CCNA certification course

From networking fundamentals to getting your hands dirty in preparation for test practise questions, this post will show you how to prepare for the CCNA certification.

1. Obtain the appropriate study materials

CCNA preparation necessitates the acquisition of the appropriate study resources. The current editions of Cisco CCNA study resources suc has workbooks, PDFs, PPTs and other study materials are the most effective study tools for your preparation.

You can also access the Cisco study courses at official Cisco website.

Make sure you finish all of the lab exercises and practise questions. At a fundamental level, you should be familiar with and understand binary mathematics. This is because the knowledge will help you prepare for the CCNA exam.

2. It is best if you have more practise experience

You’ll need both theoretical and practical expertise to pass the CCNA exam. As you study for this demanding exam, you should be able to apply your theoretical knowledge to real-world networking challenges.


Many individuals are aware, for example, that IP is unreliable. The main challenge, however, is being able to locate alternative communication troubleshooting between distinct IP nodes.

3. Use practise tests to your advantage

Set a practise test deadline for yourself and begin practising as soon as possible so you can figure out which aspects of your studies need to be improved. Once you’ve identified your shortcomings, make realistic goals for yourself to improve them in between studying sessions leading up to the exam.

4. Before the exam, go over everything again

It’s usually a good idea to go through the lessons again before taking your test. You’ll be able to iron out any kinks in your comprehension and spot anything that might have slipped past you on the initial read.

It’s time to get serious about your examinations and buckle down. I’ve spent the previous few weeks problem-solving and looking for fresh questions on the internet forums, online practise tests, and so on.

You’ll be able to check off all the boxes in one fell swoop if you do it this way. It’s also a good idea to evaluate everything you’ve learnt during your CCNA course in the last week. You can find a variety of CCNA training courses online to help you prepare for your exam.

5. It’s a thorough and speedy test

You’ll be tested on a range of topics, including routing protocols and spanning trees, in the CCNA exam. Given the breadth of information required to pass these exams, we recommend devoting some time to studying basics of networking, which Cisco uses as its testing foundation.

This necessitates candidates going through the breadth and depth of topics studied as part of their study process.


You’ll also need to be quick because you’ll have to answer all questions in 120 minutes.

Even if you are well-prepared, answering all of the questions in a short period of time can be difficult. You should try answering questions from past years. This will allow you to better manage your time and complete the exam in a timely manner.

Also read: Why Learn Palo Alto Firewall Certification Courses

CCNA certification exam

Professionals’ core knowledge is tested by the CCNA exam. As a result, as new technologies are introduced, the exam’s questions will continue to evolve. Here are a few key points to remember regarding the exam:

  • This is an objective exam with multiple choice options from which you must choose the correct answer
  • Other types of questions, such as drag and drop, simlet, sim, and testlet, are also possible
  • There are only one way to obtain the Cisco CCNA credential through CCNA 200-301 exam.
  • The exam can be given in one of two languages: Japanese or English.

The CCNA certification opens more than just opportunities for lucrative networking professions. It can also promote you and your expertise in networking to a global audience.

It demonstrates your expertise and puts you ahead of your non-certified counterparts. The cost of the CCNA certification is set at $300.

How to prepare for CCNA 200-301 certification?

Are you thinking about how to clear your CCNA 200-301exam? If not, were you planning to appear for the exam? If yes, but you don’t know exactly what you should do, which source to prefer and don’t know all about CCNA exam right????
But don’t you worry guys. We are here to solve all your problems!!
All you have to do is just go through the below mentioned blog and let your one step ahead to your brighter future!!!

Table of content
● What is CCNA?
● What are CCNA prerequisites?
● How many CCNA exams are there?
● How much does the CCNA exam cost?
● What is the question format?
● What is the passing score required?
● Does the CCNA certificate expire?
● Is the CCNA worth it?
● How much would you expect when you get your CCNA certificate?
● How difficult is the CCNA exam?
● How to register for the CCNA exam?
● What resources do you need to pass the CCNA exam?
● How to pass this exam?
● Tips for CCNA preparation
● Conclusion

What is CCNA?

CCNA stands for Cisco certified network associate. It is provided by Cisco. Obtaining this certificate will prove that you have the core knowledge and the hands-on experience to work as a network administrator.
To test your knowledge and skills regarding network access, network fundamentals, automation and programmability, this exam is conducted.

What are CCNA prerequisites?

Similar to many other certificates out there, there are no prerequisites to take the exam.
Cisco recommends that you have one or many years of experience implementing and working with Cisco solutions. They also recommend that you have a basic knowledge of IP addressing as well as you have a good understanding of network fundamentals.

How many CCNA exams are there?

There is only one exam that you need to take which is CCNA 200-301.
This is the only exam that you need to take. If you pass this exam you will get your CCNA certificate.

How much does the CCNA exam cost?

The exam will cost you only three hundred dollars

How long the exam is and how many questions does it contain?

The exam duration is 120 minutes, that is two hours.

You would expect to get from 100 to 120 questions.
The Cisco exam is not like security plus and all the other exams out there. You can go back to the questions, so you can skip the questions that you don’t know and can go back to it later, but in cisco exam you can’t. Whenever you pass that question you can’t get back to it again but also it is doable.

What is the question format?

Most of the questions that you will get will be multiple choice questions and drag and drop questions. Many questions are basically running a command, they will run a command for you.
For example- let’s say show an IP route and they will ask a question about that and will give you the options. Sometimes it’s going to be a single answer, sometimes it’s going to be multiple answers.

What is the passing score required?

Cisco will give each a different passing score, however this score will be from 800 to 850. It’s not going to be higher than 850 and it’s going to be lower than 800.
The way Cisco grades you, they will start you with 300 points right away before you even start your exams and then you will be building from there. Another thing to mention is how you would know what the needed score for you to pass.
Before you even start your exam, they will give you some instructions and it will tell you what your passing score is.

Does the CCNA certificate expire?

Yes, unfortunately it does expire. You can renew it within every 3 years.

Is the CCNA worth it?

Yes, this certificate is definitely worth it for many reasons.

  1. Network is everywhere therefore having a basic foundation of networking is fundamental to a successful career in formation technology and my other field.
  2. This certificate will prove to your employer that you have what it takes when it comes to networking. You have the skills. You have the knowledge to troubleshoot and to work as a network engineer.

How much would you expect when you get your CCNA certificate?

This is one of the things that tells you that this certificate is worth it. It’s only one certificate but it is going to open many doors for you. According to Glassdoor the average CCNA salary in the United States is $72,381.
You can also look up your country, all you need to do is just write CCNA and after that choose your country and it will tell you what the average salary is for CCNA in your country.

How difficult is the CCNA exam?

You yourself can answer this question. You are the only one who decides how difficult this exam could be. If you prepare the right way this exam won’t be difficult at all.
Don’t let anyone discourage you as there are many people out there, the first thing they will tell you is that this exam is so difficult and there is no way that you are going to get that certificate.
Sometimes they really don’t mean to discourage you but they want to feel accomplished by telling everyone how difficult it was and how challenging it was and they finally made it. Don’t let that stress you out.
I believe that everything is possible in life. It’s just how much work you are willing to put into it and as willing to put into it.

How to register for the CCNA exam?

All you need to do is –
a. Go to Pearson and create an account.
b. After that look up CCNA 200-301 when you find the exam, you have to add it to your card.
c. You have to buy a voucher for the exam which is $300.
d. After that you can schedule your exam.

What resources do you need to pass the CCNA exam?

For the resources you need to buy the CCNA 200-301 official search guide volume one and volume two. You can find them on amazon, the kindle version will cost you around twenty dollars.
If you want to go for the hardcover that’s more expensive you would pay around $37 for volume one and $34 for volume two.
There is a website called o’reilly. They have a good piece of material all related to this course.

How to pass this exam?

Similar to security plus, similar to many other certificates out there you need to be familiar with the wording of the questions because it doesn’t matter how knowledge you have on the field, they can trick you with some questions.
There are many questions that you think you know the answer for but the way they work the question is going to throw you off. So you should go and look for practice questions for the CCNA. If you just Google it there are many practice questions out there for this CCNA.

Tips for CCNA exam preparation-

  1. Download exam objectives from official site
  2. Set a goal for your exam date and take an assessment.
  3. Have a plan such –
    • Time of day
    • Hours of sessions of topics
    • Break
    • Place and resources.
  4. Commit to goals for each study session and work through exam objectives.
  5. Take another assessment at 50% of study
  6. Take a last assessment at 100% of study.
  7. Go with e-learning sources.
  8. Ask for virtual instructor-led training to help you out.

So, if you want to pass your exam, go through the resources and do your own research.
You look for things that work for you. Stay committed if you really want to make it, you have to be committed, and you have to study, give yourself a minimum of three hours every day.
Not only that network should be everything in your life when you are in your car listening to some networking podcast, when you are at home and instead of watching, play any YouTube videos about networking on your TV.
So you have to go to the level!!!!!